Gender Parity Gap

Gender Parity Gap

Globally, the overall gender parity gap decreased by 0.6 percent between 2015 and 2020, indicating there was a marginal improvement in gender parity across the time period. The gender parity gap also decreased in areas of female political participation, educational attainment, and health in the past decade.

Change in the Global Gender Parity Gap (Overall)

  • There has been some improvement in gender parity across the globe in recent times, according to a recent study by the World Economic Forum (WEF).
  • The World Economic Forum is a global authority on gender parity studies and has consistently published reports on the topic every year for the past 14 years. The WEF conducts the widest study on gender parity consisting of 153 countries and 14 independent indicators.
  • Reports published by the WEF are also recognized and referenced by other reputable organizations such as the International Monetary Fund and Havard University.
  • According to reports from the WEF, overall global gender parity has improved marginally from 2015 to 2019. Below are some quantitative figures that help portray the increase:
    • In 2015, the overall global gender parity index was 68 percent, indicating there was a 32 percent parity gap between female to male.
    • In 2016, the overall global gender parity index was 68.3 percent, indicating there was a 31.7 percent parity gap between female to male.
    • In 2017, the overall global gender parity index was 68.0 percent, indicating there was a 32.0 percent parity gap between female to male.
    • In 2018, the overall global gender parity index remained at 68.0 percent, indicating there was still a 32.0 percent parity gap between female to male.
    • In 2019, the overall global gender index was 68.6 percent, indicating there was a 31.4 percent parity gap between female to male.

Global Gender Gap Index

Areas of Improvement (Global): Political Empowerment

  • The greatest positive change in gender parity in the last decade was in the area of female political involvement and empowerment, according to data provided by the World Economic Forum.

Women's Political Empowerment

  • The political empowerment index, which is based on women’s participation in politics as heads of state, ministers, and representation in the parliament, increased from 17 percent in 2009 to 25 percent in 2019 — representing an increase of 8 percent.

Areas of Improvement (Global): Educational Attainment

  • The educational sector recorded the second-largest improvement in gender parity in the last decade. The educational attainment index, which is based on the female literacy rate and enrollment in primary, secondary, and tertiary institutions, increased from 93 percent in 2009 to 96 percent in 2019 — representing an increase of 3 percent.

Education Gap

Areas of Improvement (Global): Health and Survival

  • Over the past ten years, there was a marginal improvement in gender parity in the health category. The health and survival index, which is based on female life expectancy and birth ratio, increased from 96 percent in 2009 to 97 percent in 2019 — representing an increase of 1 percent.

Additional Findings

  • The World Economic Forum measures gender parity across four major areas of human existence. They include (1) educational attainment, (2) economic participation and opportunity, (3) health and survival, and (4) political empowerment.
  • Of the four listed categories, only the economic category retrogressed in the last decade. The economic participation and opportunity index, which is based on female participation and wage equality in the labor market, declined from 59 percent in 2009 to 58 percent in 2019 — representing a decrease of 1 percent.

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