Industry Case Study

EV Battery Remanufacturing Partnerships


BMW has partnerships with Off Grid Energy, EVgo, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Duesenfeld, and Umicore for either developing energy storage system facilities using second-life EV batteries or developing recycling or repurposing solutions for used EV batteries. In recent years, automotive companies have placed a lot of emphasis on the second-life of used EV batteries. The partnerships developed by companies like Toyota, Hyundai, Volkswagen, Renault, Daimler AG, Audi, Groupe PSA, General Motors, JLR, and the FCA Group are presented below. In this report, kW refers to the nominal output and kWh refers to the storage capacity of the energy storage system (ESS) facilities. Also, partnerships involving only the second-life applications of EV batteries have been considered. Partnerships involving new charging facilities have not been considered.


  • BMW Group UK: Off Grid Energy – On October 14, 2020, BMW Group UK announced a partnership with Off Grid Energy for developing a sustainable, second-life solution for used BMW and MINI electric vehicle (EV) batteries. These batteries will be used to create a mobile ESS facility of capacity 180kWh and capable of providing multiple charges up to 50kW.
  • BMW: EVgo – In 2018, BMW installed a 30 kW/44 kWh ESS facility developed from four used batteries taken from BMW i3 cars at one of EVgo’s fast-charging stations.
  • BMW: Duesenfeld – Partnership between BMW and the German recycling specialist Duesenfeld to develop a recycling solution to achieve a 96% recycling rate from used EV batteries.
  • BMW: Umicore – Partnership between BMW, Umicore, and Northvolt to repurpose BMW’s used EV batteries and use them for ESS applications.
  • BMW: Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) – Partnership between BMW and PG&E for a 18-month pilot project called the BMW ChargeForward program that tested the capability of electric vehicles to integrate renewable energy through smart charging and support the electric grid.


  • Toyota: Chubu Electric Power Co. – For a verification project involving the construction of a storage battery system that reuses used EV batteries and developing a mechanism to repurpose used batteries by collecting rare-earth metals and recycling them.
  • Toyota: Umicore – Partnership between Toyota and Umicore for developing sustainable repurposing and recycling solutions for used Lithium-ion batteries in Europe.
  • Toyota: CATL – Comprehensive partnership with the Chinese battery maker Contemporary Amperex Technology Co. Limited (CATL) to develop solutions for new EV batteries, new battery system technologies, improving the quality of current technology, and reusing and recycling used EV batteries.


  • Hyundai: Wartsila – Developing an ESS facility that utilizes used Ioniq EV batteries. The facility will be used to power mining operations, microgrids, and even power plants. A pilot project of a 1 MWh ESS facility has already been built by Hyundai for implementation in its steel making subsidiary’s plant.
  • Hyundai: SK Innovation Co. – Partnership between Hyundai and SK Innovation Co. to develop a sustainable ecosystem for EV batteries that include battery management, battery sales, and battery reuse and recycling solutions.
  • Hyundai: Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co. – Partnership for a pilot project until 2021 to develop a ESS facility that will generate 10 MWh of energy utilizing Hyundai’s used EV batteries.
  • Hyundai: Hanwha Q Cells – To jointly develop a solar ESS facility in the German research center of Hanwha Q Cells that will be driven by used EV batteries.
  • Hyundai: OCI – Hyundai has partnered with Seoul-based OCI for a pilot project that involves installing Hyundai’s ESS products made from recycled EV batteries at OCI’s solar farms in South Korea and Texas.


  • Volkswagen: MAN Truck & Bus – A joint partnership between Volkswagen, MAN Truck & Bus, and bus operator Verkehrsbetriebe Hamburg-Holstein (VHH) for a pilot project that involves building a 600 kW/495 kWh ESS facility in Hamburg from used Passat GTE plug-in hybrid batteries.
  • Volkswagen: Northvolt – To launch a pilot production for EV batteries at Volkswagen’s Salzgitter plant with an aim to achieve a capacity of 16 GWh by 2023. The production will also incorporate used EV batteries.


  • Renault: Nidec – Renault has partnered with Nidec ASI, the Banque des Territoires, The Mobility House, and Demeter for the Advanced Battery Storage project, a stationary ESS facility which will have a capacity of 50 MWh. The first ESS facility delivering 4.7 MWh of power has been installed at the Renault Douai plant.
  • Renault: Connected Energy – Renault has partnered with Connected Energy to install a local ESS facility utilizing second-life Renault EV batteries incorporated into Connected Energy’s E-STOR systems in West Sussex, England. The project is called SmartHubs.
  • Renault: Umicore – Renault has partnered with Umicore and Connected Energy to install a 1.2MW/720kWh stationary ESS facility utilizing second-life Renault EV batteries at Umicore’s industrial site in Belgium.
  • Renault: Powervault – Partnership intended at reducing the cost of Powervault’s smart battery unit by 30% by utilizing second-life Renault EV batteries.

Daimler AG

  • Daimler: Beijing Electric Vehicle Co. Ltd. – Daimler AG, its subsidiary Mercedes-Benz Energy, and BAIC Group’s subsidiary Beijing Electric Vehicle Co. Ltd. (BJEV) have established a partnership to install second-life ESS facilities in China utilizing second-life EV batteries from BJEV.
  • Daimler: enercity (Stadtwerke Hannover AG) – Partnership between Daimler AG, its subsidiary Mercedes-Benz Energy, and Stadtwerke Hannover AG to build a 17.4 MWh ESS facility in Europe utilizing used EV batteries.
  • Daimler: The Mobility House – Partnership between Daimler, The Mobility House, Remondis, and Getec to install a 13 MWh stationary ESS facility utilizing 1,000 used EV batteries in Lünen, Germany.


  • Audi: Umicore – Partnership between Audi and Umicore for a closed-loop pilot project for sustainable EV battery recycling.
  • Audi: EnBW – Partnership between Audi and the utility company EnBW to establish an EV battery operation at EnBW’s Heilbronn plant. The collaboration aims to utilize used EV batteries to build ESS facilities.
  • Audi: BELECTRIC GmbH – BELECTRIC has partnered with Audi to install a 1.9MWh ESS facility in Berlin using 20 used Audi second-life EV batteries.

Groupe PSA

  • Groupe PSA: Mitsubishi – In July 2015, PSA Peugeot Citroën formed a partnership with Mitsubishi, Electricité de France (EDF), and Forsee Power for a joint project that demonstrated efficient and economical energy management practices by utilizing used EV batteries.
  • Groupe PSA: Total SE – Groupe PSA along with its subsidiary Opel and Total SE along with its subsidiary Saft have announced a partnership to create the Automotive Cells Company. The partnership involves the building of two ESS gigafactories with individual capacities of 24 GWh in France and Germany.

General Motors (GM)

  • GM: ABB – In 2012, GM partnered with ABB to develop a 25kW/50 kWh prototype ESS facility by utilizing five used Chevrolet Volt batteries.
  • GM: SAIC – A joint venture between General Motors China, SAIC Motor, and Liuzhou Wuling Motors Co Ltd. to develop a 250 kW/1000 kWh ESS facility in southern China’s Guangxi province utilizing used EV batteries.
  • GM: LG Chem – Partnership to develop a battery manufacturing facility in Ohio capable of producing 30 GWh of batteries every year. The facility having the capability of repurposing and recycling used batteries will produce the Ultium series of batteries that can be rescaled for a second-life.


  • JLR: Connected Energy – Partnership between JLR and Connected Energy for a GBP 1.3 million project incorporating Connected Energy’s E-STOR systems for developing solutions for the productive uses of second-life EV batteries.
  • JLR: Innovate UK – As part of the REALITY project, Innovate UK is co-funding JLR’s testing of prototype EV batteries for the pre-production Jaguar I-PACE EV models. These batteries can be rescaled and repurposed for a second-life.

FCA Group

  • FCA: GBatteries – Partnership between FCA Group and GBatteries for developing solutions aimed at decreasing battery degradation and increasing cycle life of lithium-ion batteries (ActiveBMS). These batteries can be rescaled and repurposed for a second-life.
  • FCA: Engie – Partnership between FCA and Engie to build the world’s largest vehicle-to-grid (V2G) project utilizing used EV batteries to deliver 25 MW of energy back to the Italian electricity network.
  • FCA: Enel X – Partnership between FCA, Enel X, and Engie for developing innovative charging solutions and services and ESS facilities for FCA’s full-electric (BEV) and plug-in hybrid (PHEV) models.
Glenn is the Lead Operations Research Analyst at Simple Manifestation with experience in research, statistical data analysis and interview techniques. A holder of degree in Economics. A true specialist in quantitative and qualitative research.

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